ROEL SCHIPPER



 

 
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Flexible Mould Project

 

INTRODUCTION

Free form architecture with complex geometry brings along new challenges for manufacturers of building components. The Flexible Mould Project aimed to develop an elastic mould surface, used as formwork for the manufacturing of double-curved panels in precast concrete. The core of this R&D project was formed by the PhD project of Roel Schipper. Parts of the research were taken up by MSc students of TU Delft, Faculty of Civil Engineering. This web page gives a collection of the papers that have been published and shows some movies of laboratory experiments.

NEWS


`The Turtle`

At the Bouwbeurs, a large trade fair for the building industry in The Netherlands, the paviljon of the 3TU.Lighthouse project was shown between February 6 and February 10, 2017. The paviljon demonstrates a double-curved thin concrete shell of approximately 2.5 x 2.5 square meters and a height of 0.75 meter. The shell is constructed of 4 'legs' that exactly match the central 'flower'. The contours of alle elements were first 3D-printed on the double-curved mould surface, after which the area within each contour was filled with cast concrete. In this manner, the traditional casting of concrete, the use of a flexible mould surface and 3D-printing with concrete have been combined in a meaningful way. A journal and conference publication are currently in preparation.


A team consisting of researchers from TU Delft and TU Eindhoven has obtained a 3TU.Bouw Lighthouse grant to combine the flexible mould principle with 3D-printing. Both technologies are quite complementary: whereas the flexible mould - due to the casting of self compacting mixtures - allows for very smoort surface finishes, additive manufacturing enables the detailled addition of edges, ribs and the like. News on the results will be posted here...


In September 2015, I succesfully defended my PhD thesis "Double-curved precast concrete elements - Research into technicaly viability of the flexible mould method" at TU Delft.

A brief summary of the content:

"The production of precast, concrete elements with complex, double-curved geometry is expensive. This is caused by the high cost of the necessary moulds and the limited possibilities for reuse. Currently, computer numerically controlled milled foam moulds are the solution applied in various projects. These moulds deliver good aesthetic performance, but also result in a waste of material, relatively low production speed and fairly high costs per element. The flexible mould method, as discussed in this thesis, offers an economic alternative for the state of art: it allows repeated reuse of the same mould in an adapted shape."

The book is available in printed edition on request, please contact me (h.r.schipper@tudelft.nl). A digital version can be obtained freely from TU Delft Institutional Repository.


Earlier news items:

  • IASS2015 conference Future Visions - Our research project results were clearly visible in the main entrance of the IASS2015 Conference in Amsterdam from August 17-20, 2015, together with other 3TU.Lighthouse flexible moulds from TU/e. In the weekend before the conference, a do-it-yourself workshop with 35 participants on flexible formwork was held under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Cement- & Betoncentrum / Tektoniek. During the conference, flexible mould technology applied in a real project was presented during the session on large Dutch stations.
  • Week van de Bouw 2015 - Our 3TU Lighthouse Kine-mould prototype was presented at the Week van de Bouw, a large yearly construction fair in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Read more about it here (in Dutch)
  • Cooperation with mbX / Concrete Valley - Since our project grantfor the Dutch Technology Foundation STW was linked to bringing our technology to practice, our recently finished prototype was transported to Bergen op Zoom's mbX / Concrete Valley for testing. mbX  is working on innovative methods for production of concrete elements, and has several interesting new projects upcoming, for which the flexible mould technology will be a powerful solution. Together with mbX, we are testing the feasibility of using our mould for cladding elements with strong curvature.

  • A valorisation grant proposal for the Dutch governmental Technology Foundation STW was awarded. This will allow us to build a larger prototype of the improved flexible mould under the working title "Kine-Mould". Co-applicants are Peter Eigenraam, a former Master student now working as lecturer for the Faculty of Architecture, and Steffen Grünewald, a researcher from the chair of Concrete Structures of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. Furthermore the Dutch company Microbeton / mbX supported our grant proposal with underlining the importance of the work for practical application in free-form architecture projects. We are glad that the grant was awarded, and are eager to start the project. Matteo Soru is working as research assistant in the project.
  • A 3TU.Lighthouse Grant was awarded by the 3TU.Federatie, a collaborative research program from the three Universities of Technology in The Netherlands. At this moment, the team consists of Roel Schipper, Peter Eigenraam, Steffen Grünewald, Arno Pronk and Matthias Michel and Matteo Soru. The grant is supporting speculative research projects aiming for tangible prototypes as outcome. In the second half of 2014 this prototype will be developed, in synergy with the above mentioned STW project.
  • Master student Sergiu Troian carried out microscopic research to investigate the effect of deformation after casting. By changing various parameters such as moment of deformation, curvature, thickness and mixture composition, he was able to analyze the impact on a microscopic level. The research has resulted in positive outcomes for the flexible mould method and several useful recommendations for architects, engineers and manufacturers. His thesis "Crack Evaluation in Double-Curved Concrete Elements" can be downloaded here.
  • During the First Concrete Innovation Conference (CIC) in Oslo in June 2014, our paper "Optimization of the Flexible Mould Process for the Production of Double Curved Concrete Elements" was nominated for the Efficient Construction Technique innovation award. The paper can be found below.
  • Flexible reinforcement of the curved panels. Several elements were cast with glassfibre reinforcement. Bending and tensile tests will be performed to aquire information about the strength. MSc student Marijn Kok has successfully finished his thesis. An impression of the results and a link to the results can be found below.

SPONSORS

The project is kindly supported by the following parties:

 

 

Dutch Technology Foundation STW

 

 

The three universities of technology in the Netherlands are jointly committed to strengthening and pooling technical knowledge.

 

white cement for architectural concrete

  

Omya BetoFlow D - regular white ultrafine calcium carbonate

Chryso Fluid Premia Admixture for
self-compacting concrete

 



richt zich op de extreme
(geometrische) mogelijkheden
van de nieuwe betongeneratie

 

    

 

 


 

PUBLICATIONS

 

     
Hawkins2016 - Flexible formwork technologies - a state of the art review published in Structural Concrete, peer-reviewed journal BibTeX 2016

Schipper2016a - Maakbaarheid / Flexibele herbruikbare mal

Roel Schipper and Peter Eigenraam

published online on Tektoniek   2016
Grunewald2016 - Double-curved panels produced in a flexible mould with self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete published on conference HyPerMat Kassel BibTeX 2016

Schipper2015c - Kine-Mould: Manufacturing technology
for curved architectural elements in concrete

Roel Schipper, Peter Eigenraam, Steffen Grünewald, Matteo Soru, Pieter Nap, Bjorn Van Overveld, Jos Vermeulen

published in Proceedings of the International Society Of Flexible Formwork (ISOFF) Symposium, Amsterdam, KIVI BibTeX 2015
Schipper2015b - Double-curved precast concrete elements - Research into technical viability of the flexible mould method PhD thesis Delft University of Technology BibTeX 2015

Eigenraam2015a - Patent NL2011770C: Apparatus for forming a curved panel from a flat panel

Peter Eigenraam and Roel Schipper

patent that describes various improvements of the strip mould invented during the MSc thesis research of Peter Eigenraam BibTeX 2015

Eigenraam2015 - Concepts and prototypes for flexible moulds for production of double curved elements

by Peter Eigenraam and Roel Schipper

published in Proceedings of the International Society Of Flexible Formwork (ISOFF) Symposium, Amsterdam, KIVI BibTeX 2015

Schipper2015 - Kine-Mould - flexible mould system opens up wide range of possibilities

Results of the 3TU.Lighthouse project   2015

Grunewald2015 - Bewehrungskonzepte für dünne Platten,

Steffen Grünewald and Roel Schipper

article for BWI - BetonWerk International, 2015, Issue 2
(German translation of the article below)

BibTeX 2015

Grünewald2015 - Reinforcement concepts for thin panels,

Steffen Grünewald and Roel Schipper

article for CPi Concrete Plant International, 2015, Issue 2

various options to reinforce panels are discussed and tested (steel, glass fibre textile, mixed steel fibres, orientation by casting direction)

  2015
Tissink2015b - Geweven verenstaal oplossing voor flexibele mal publication in Cobouw on the mould that was shown during the Week van de Bouw fair in Utrecht, The Netherlands   2015
Tissink2015a - Dubbelgekromde betonpanelen accentueren glooiing stationsdak publication on the elements made by mbX for the impressive OV Terminal in Arnhem, The Netherlands   2015
Troian2014 - Crack Evaluation in Double-Curved Concrete Elements - Sergiu Troian - Master's Thesis presented by Sergiu Troian at his Master's Thesis final presentation in Delft BibTeX 2014
Bartoli2014 - The Production Effect on the Performance pf Panels Cast with Self-compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete - Bartoli, L. and Grünewald, S. and Schipper, H.R. and Yang, Y. and Hordijk, D. presented by Steffen Grünewald at SHCC3, Dordrecht, The Netherlands BibTeX 2014
Kok2014 - Double-curved Textile Reinforced Concrete Panels with Tensile Strain-hardening Characteristics - Kok, M.A.D and Schipper, H.R. and Grünewald, S. and Nijsse, R. presented by Steffen Grünewald at SHCC3, Dordrecht, The Netherlands BibTeX 2014
Schipper2014a - Efficient material use through smart flexible formwork method - Roel Schipper and Steffen Grünewald presented by Roel Schipper at Eco-Crete Reykjavik, Iceland BibTeX 2014
Schipper2014 - Optimization of the flexible mould process for the production of double-curved concrete elements - Roel Schipper, Steffen Grünewald, Peter Eigenraam,Prashanth Raghunath and Marijn Kok

presented by Steffen Grünewald at CIC2014 Oslo

published digitally

BibTeX 2014
Schipper2013b - Shaping building surfaces - inspired by Renzo Piano - Roel Schipper published in Rumoer - periodical for the Building Technologist volume 56, 2013   2013
Schipper2013a - Rheological Parameters used for deliberate Deformation of a Flexible Mould after Casting, H.R. Schipper and S. Grünewald and P. Raghunath

presented at RILEM2013, Paris

published on additional DVD with proceedings

BibTeX 2013
Schipper2013 - Verwendung von SVB und Textilbewehrung, Roel Schipper, Steffen Grünewald, Marijn Kok, Rob Nijsse, Prashanth Raghunath, article for BWI - BetonWerk International, Oktober 2013, Issue 5 BibTeX 2013
grunewald2012 - Deliberate deformation of concrete after casting, S. Grünewald, B. Janssen, H.R. Schipper, K.J. Vollers and J.C. Walraven paper for 2nd International Conference on Flexible Formworks, Bath, 2012 BibTeX

2012

schipper2011c - Manufacturing Double Curved Precast Concrete Panels, H.R. Schipper and B. Janssen article for CPI Concrete Plant International BibTeX

2011

schipper2011b - Curving Concrete – A Method for Manufacturing Double Curved Precast Concrete Panels using a Flexible Mould, H.R. Schipper and B. Janssen paper for conference IABSE/IASS London, 2011 BibTeX

2011

schipper2011a - ПРОИЗВОДСТВО БЕТОННЫХ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ С ДВУМЯ КРИВОЛИНЕЙНЫМИ КОНТУРАМИ - ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ ПЕРЕДОВЫХ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННЫХ МЕТОДОВ В СОЗДАНИИ СВОБОДНЫХ АРХИТЕКТУРНЫХ ФОРМ (Manufacturing of Double-Curved Concrete Elements)

paper for Russian magazine on concrete manufacturing "Concrete and reinforced concrete - Equipment. Materials. Technology" BibTeX

2011

schipper2011 - MANUFACTURING DOUBLE-CURVED ELEMENTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE USING A FLEXIBLE MOULD - FIRST EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS, H.R. Schipper and B. Janssen paper for fib Symposium PRAGUE 2011 BiBTeX

2011

schipper2010b - A flexible mold for double curved precast concrete elements / Flexibles Schalungssystem für zweifach gebogene Betonfertigteile, H.R. Schipper and J.N.J.A. Vambersky

article for BFT International

BibTeX

2010

 

schipper2010a - Frei geformte Betonbauteile - Finden einer Fertigungsmethode / Curving concrete - search for a production method, H.R. Schipper and J.N.J.A. Vambersky

article for 17. Internationale Fachtagung "Nachhaltigkeit und Ressourceneffizienz bei der Herstellung von Betonwaren und Betonfertigteilen / Sustainability and resource efficiency in the production of concrete products and precast elements", Weimar, Germany

 

  2010

schipper2010 - A flexible mould for double curved pre-cast concrete elements, H.R. Schipper and J.N.J.A. Vambersky

paper for symposium Precast2010, Assembling Freeform Buildings in Precast Concrete, Delft, 2010

  2010
Schipper2009

article for U-Profile, the glossy of the U-Dispuut, which is the student study association for Msc students at Civil Engineering, MSc Building Engineering

  2009

 

TESTS

 

document description date

click image for gallery

VIDEO

 

24

casting, deforming and demoulding a double-curved element by students Sergiu Troian and Angela Greco

the panel is part of a tulip-shaped pavilion that was designed by the students

the panel is manufactured using the improved version of the flexible mould designed by Peter Eigenraam during his MSc thesis project

October 2013

click image for gallery

 

23

casting, deforming and demoulding a double-curved element by students Sergiu Troian and Angela Greco

the panel is part of a tulip-shaped pavilion that was designed by the students

the panel is manufactured using the improved version of the flexible mould designed by Peter Eigenraam during his MSc thesis project

September 2013

click image for gallery

 

fitting

arrangements of various panels to check overall geometry

these elements were all cast using the non-improved and simple version of the flexible mould

especially the edge fitting shows the limitations of that system - large improvement has been made using the mould designed by Peter Eigenraam, see images above.

various moments in 2013

click image for gallery

 

22

casting, deformation and demoulding of two double-curved specimens with textile reinforcement

the aim was to check the influence of the deformation on the position of the textile layers

read more in the Msc thesis of Marijn Kok, section 5.3

June 2013

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21

tensile tests of specimens with various thickness and various numbers of textile layers

read more in the Msc thesis of Marijn Kok, chapter 6

May 2013

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21

specimens with various thickness and various numbers of textile layers are cast to perform tensile test

April 2013

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20

4-point bending tests on the specimens of batch 20 with various thickness and various numbers of textile layers

read more in the Msc thesis of Marijn Kok, chapter 7

May 2013

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20

specimens with various thickness and various numbers of textile layers are cast to perform 4-point bending test

April 2013

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19

the two specimens of batch 19 are cut to examine the effect of the deformation on the position and embedding of the textile layers in the specimens

it is shown that the position of the layers is reasonably accurate, and that the calculated influence on the bending strength (Mmax) is approx. +/- 20% from the average calculated strength

read more in the Msc thesis of Marijn Kok, section 5.3

April 2013

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19

visual inspections of the two specimens of batch 19

the marker points on the edge of the panel show the intended position of the four textile layers

April 2013

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19

batch 19 - casting of two single-curved elements following the same procedure as batch 18a

April 2013

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18a

demoulding and cutting the element to examine how the textile is positioned in various layers

April 2013

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18a

first test of casting a small textile reinforced element following the 'lasagna' method

(manual lay-up)

the textile is alkali-resistent glass fibre textile with a grid of 8 mm

the concrete is a mixture with fine fillers and a maximum aggregate size of 1 mm

read more in the Msc thesis of Marijn Kok

April 2013

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laser scanning

Using the Faro-scanner of the department of Remote Sensing, several elements were scanned in order to be able to compare the real geometry with the intended shape coming from the design as computer model

March 2013

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18

visual inspection elements batch 18

Dec 2012

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18

casting and deforming elements batch 18

Dec 2012

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17

visual inspection of batch 17

Nov 2012

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17

deformation of batch 17

Nov 2012

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17

casting of batch 17

Nov 2012

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16

visual inspection of batch 16

Nov 2012

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16

demoulding of batch 16

Nov 2012

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16

deformation of batch 16

Nov 2012

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16

casting of batch 16

Nov 2012

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15

visual inspection of batch 15

Nov 2012

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15

casting of batch 15

Nov 2012

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14

visual inspection of batch 14

Nov 2012

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14

casting of batch 14

slump / slump flow / mini-slump / T50 tests before casting batch 14

Nov 2012

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13

visual inspection of batch 13

Nov 2012

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13

casting of batch 13

Nov 2012

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12

visual inspection of specimens batch 12

Nov 2012

 

12

casting of batch 12

Nov 2012

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11

amazing detail and smooth concrete surface texture, using the mixture of batch 11!

Oct
2012

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movie: casting and deforming a 50 mm thick concrete element on a flexible mould - one of the first tests.

Improvements needed on surface quality and included air bubbles. Overall geometry is OK.

Sept 2012

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11

visual inspection of specimens batch 11

Oct 2012

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11

casting of speciments batch 11

Oct 2012

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10

visual inspection of specimens batch 10

Oct
2012

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10

casting of specimens batch 10

Oct
2012

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6

drilled cores and cut sections from specimens batch 6

Oct 2012

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6


visual inspection specimens batch 6

very fluid mixture was used; segregation visible of fine and course particles
Oct 2012

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5


visual inspection specimens batch 5

 

Oct 2012

5


casting and deformation of batch 5

increased dosage of superplasticizer, but still fast increase of yield strength
Oct 2012

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4


visual inspection specimens batch 4
Oct 2012

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4


casting and deformation of batch 4

slump = 0!


we are still trying to find the right workability: in this cast the yield strength of the mixture was increasing so fast, that deformation of the mould led to cracks in some specimens.

the mixture was compacted with a vibration needle

Oct 2012

 


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3


visual inspection specimen batch 3

quite satisfactory overall geometry, sharp edges, surface quality reasonable, however still too much bleeding

Sep 2012

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3


casting and deformation of batch 3

the first element with negative (single) curvature R=1.5 meter
Sep 2012

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2

visual inspection specimen batch 2
Sep 2012


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2


casting and deformation of batch 2
concrete still too fluid;
segregation of fine and course aggregates
Sep 2012

complete photo gallery of mould preparation

Flexible moulds under preparation for test series

Sept 2012

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movie of the manufacturing of a double curved element - one of the final experiments in the MSc thesis work of Bas Janssen, executed by Roel Schipper and Bas Janssen 2011

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movie of the manufacturing of a single curved element - one of the first experiments done in this project, executed by Roel Schipper and MSc student Bas Janssen for his thesis work 2010